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Unmasking the Difference Between Disinformation and Propaganda

We were talking to a friend this week about disinformation in response to the war between Russia and Ukraine. She disagreed with the term 'disinformation'' saying we actually mean 'propaganda'. Therefore it seemed pertinent to pen a blog about the difference between the two terms.

woman confused between disinformation and propaganda

Our friend was correct in that both disinformation and propaganda aim to manipulate public opinion, but they do actually differ in their intent and methods. Here we will delve into the disparities between the two, and look at some examples of each, and how you can identity if something is propaganda or disinformation.


Disinformation: The Weapon of Misinformation

Disinformation refers to the deliberate spread of false or misleading information, often with the intention to deceive or confuse the public. It operates in various forms, such as fabricated news stories, doctored images or videos, and misleading narratives. Disinformation campaigns aim to exploit people's cognitive biases, exploit societal divisions, and undermine trust in institutions. European countries have experienced their fair share of disinformation challenges.


During the 2016 Brexit referendum campaign in the United Kingdom, disinformation played a significant role. False claims were made by both campaigns about the financial benefits of leaving the European Union, as well as about the dangerous cost of leaving, stoking fears and misleading voters. Social media platforms were inundated with fake news stories and divisive content, manipulating public sentiment.


The "Yellow Vest" movement in France, which began in late 2018, faced challenges due to disinformation. False rumours and misleading narratives were spread, amplifying the unrest and undermining the legitimacy of the movement. Disinformation aimed to provoke further chaos and confusion during a critical period of political dissent.


By deliberately spreading false information, disinformation erodes public trust in traditional media, institutions, and even the democratic process itself. When people cannot distinguish fact from fiction, it becomes challenging to make informed decisions. As a result it exacerbates existing societal divisions by amplifying controversies, exploiting emotions, and fostering a sense of "us versus them." This can lead to increased tensions, hostility, and the breakdown of social cohesion. Other consequences include:

  • Erosion of Trust: Disinformation erodes public trust in institutions, media, and the democratic process by deliberately spreading false information, making it challenging for individuals to distinguish between fact and fiction.

  • Social Polarisation: Disinformation amplifies existing societal divisions by exploiting emotions and controversies, leading to increased tensions, hostility, and the breakdown of social cohesion.

  • Undermining Democracy: Disinformation can manipulate public opinion, influence voting behaviour, and undermine the foundations of democracy by distorting public discourse and electoral processes.

  • Threat to Public Health: Disinformation in public health crises can lead to confusion, mistrust, and dangerous behaviours, impacting effective response efforts and potentially endangering lives.

  • Economic Impact: Disinformation campaigns can disrupt economies, erode investor confidence, and cause financial instability by spreading false information about businesses or industries.

Propaganda: Orchestrated Manipulation

Propaganda, in contrast to disinformation, involves the systematic dissemination of information, ideas, or ideologies to shape public opinion and promote a specific agenda. Propaganda often originates from governmental or political entities seeking to influence public perception.


During the Cold War, the Soviet Union employed extensive propaganda campaigns to reinforce its ideology and control the narrative. Propaganda was disseminated through state-controlled media outlets, educational institutions, and cultural activities.


Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime used propaganda as a powerful tool to shape public opinion and fuel anti-Semitic sentiments. The dissemination of hateful messages, glorification of the "Aryan race," and demonization of others played a central role in the regime's manipulation of the German population.

  • Manipulation of Public Opinion: Propaganda aims to shape public opinion and promote a specific agenda by systematically disseminating information, ideas, or ideologies, leading to a biased understanding of events.

  • Reinforcement of Ideology: Propaganda reinforces specific ideologies by controlling the narrative, manipulating emotions, and influencing public perception to support a particular political or governmental entity.

  • Erosion of Truth: Propaganda distorts reality and can suppress or dismiss alternative viewpoints, leading to a diminished understanding of diverse perspectives and limiting informed decision-making.

  • Creation of Social Divisions: Propaganda can fuel social divisions by promoting stereotypes, demonizing certain groups, and fostering an "us versus them" mentality, contributing to social discord and animosity.

  • International Relations Impact: Propaganda can strain international relations by spreading false narratives to manipulate public opinion and justify aggressive actions, leading to conflicts or diplomatic tensions between countries.

Differentiation: How Can You Tell the Difference?

Differentiating between disinformation and propaganda can be challenging, as they both involve the deliberate manipulation of information for specific purposes. However, there are some key factors that can help in determining whether something is disinformation or propaganda:


Intent and Purpose: Disinformation aims to deceive or mislead by spreading false or misleading information, often for personal, political, or financial gain. It seeks to create confusion, undermine trust, or manipulate public opinion. Propaganda, on the other hand, is driven by a specific agenda or ideology, seeking to shape public perception and advance a particular cause or support a specific group or government.


Source and Origin: Examining the source and origin of the information can provide insights into its nature. Disinformation may originate from anonymous or unreliable sources, while propaganda is often associated with governmental or political entities aiming to promote their interests.


Systematic Narrative: Propaganda often presents a systematic narrative that supports a particular viewpoint or ideology. It uses consistent messaging, repetition, and emotional appeal to influence public opinion. Disinformation may lack a cohesive narrative and can include various false or misleading information without a clear ideological objective.


Manipulation Techniques: Both disinformation and propaganda employ manipulation techniques, but they differ in their approach. Disinformation can use fabricated stories, manipulated images, or deceptive headlines to mislead the audience. Propaganda often relies on persuasive techniques such as emotional appeal, selective information, demonization of opponents, or glorification of specific ideals.


Context and Timing: Considering the context and timing of the information can provide valuable insights. Disinformation may emerge during critical events or elections to sway public opinion. Propaganda can be prevalent during times of political campaigns, conflicts, or attempts to shape public perception about certain policies or actions.


It is important to exercise critical thinking, fact-check information from reliable sources, and be aware of biases when evaluating whether something is disinformation or propaganda. Engaging in media literacy and developing a healthy skepticism towards information can help individuals navigate the complex landscape of information dissemination.


Despite some differences fighting the negative consequences of disinformation and propaganda requires collective efforts involving multiple stakeholders. Governments should enact legislation and regulations to counter disinformation and propaganda effectively. This includes promoting media literacy, improving digital infrastructure, and establishing guidelines for social media platforms to tackle misinformation. Responsible journalism and fact-checking play a crucial role in countering disinformation. Media organizations should prioritise accuracy, transparency, and unbiased reporting to restore public trust and provide credible information. Social media platforms and technology companies need to actively combat disinformation by deploying algorithms and policies, such as the approach of TITAN to coach people and nuture their critical thinking skills.


In essence it takes an ecosystem to fight back against both disinformation and propaganda. Join us by subscribing for TITAN updates using the form in the website footer.

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